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Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) comic books

  • Issue #1-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 1-1ST

    Volume 1 - 1st printing. "Japanese Pacific Island Defenses 1941-1945!" Written by Gordon L Rottman. Art by Ian Palmer. The prolonged and bloody fighting for control of the Japanese occupied Pacific islands in World War II is a key point in 20th-century warfare. No two islands were alike in the systems and nature of their defensive emplacements, and local improvization and command preferences affected both materials used and defensive models. This title details the establishment, construction and effectiveness of Japanese temporary and semi-permanent crew-served weapons positions and individual and small-unit fighting positions. Integrated obstacles and minefields, camouflage and the changing defensive principles are also covered. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #2-1ST
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    Volume 2 - 1st printing. "Hadrian's Wall AD 122–410!" Written by Nic Fields. Art by Donato Spedaliere. Hadrian's Wall is the most important monument built by the Romans in Britain. It is the best known frontier in the entire Roman Empire and stands as a reminder of the past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations. Its origins lie in a visit by the Emperor Hadrian to Britain in AD 122 when he ordered the wall to be built to mark the northern boundary of his Empire and 'to separate the Romans from the Barbarians'. This title details the design, development and construction of the wall and covers the everyday lives of those who manned it as well as the assaults it withstood. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #3-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 3-1ST

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    Volume 3 - 1st printing. "U-Boat Bases and Bunkers 1941–45!" Written by Gordon Williamson. Art by Ian Palmer. Few of the massive military structures built by Germany during World War II are as impressive as the U-Boat bases and bunkers in Germany, Norway and France. This title takes a close look at the formidable edifices on the French coast (Brest, Lorient, St Nazaire, La Pallice, Bordeaux) in Norway (Bergen, Trondheim) and Germany (Keil, Hamburg, Helgoland) and also focuses on the huge 'Valentin' factory complex at Bremen, which manufactured the new type XXI electro-boats. Bunker protective systems, such as camouflage, light and heavy flak installations and nearby air cover, are also examined as well as resident flotillas and the fate of the bases at war's end. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #4-1ST
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    Volume 4 - 1st printing. "American Defenses of Corregidor and Manila Bay 1898–1945!" Written by Mark Berhow and Terrance McGovern. Art by Chris Taylor. The Philippines were declared an American Territory on January 4, 1899, and fortification construction soon began on the islands in the mouth of Manila Bay. Among the sites built were Fort Mills (Corregidor), Fort Frank, and the formidable concrete battleship of Fort Drum. The defenses suffered constant Japanese bombardment during World War II, leading to the surrender of American forces. In 1945 the forts were manned by Japanese soldiers determined to hold out to the bitter end. This title details the fortifications of this key strategic location, and considers both their effectiveness and historical importance. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #5-1ST
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    Volume 5 - 1st printing. "Japanese Castles 1540–1640!" Written by Stephen Turnbull. Art by Peter Dennis. The landscape of 16th- and 17th-century Japan was dominated by the graceful and imposing castles constructed by the powerful ‘daimyo' of the period. In this the most turbulent era in Japanese history, these militarily sophisticated structures provided strongholds for the consolidation and control of territory, and inevitably they became the focus for many of the great sieges of Japanese history: Nagashino (1575), Kitanosho (1583), Odawara (1590), Fushimi (1600), Osaka (1615) and Hara (1638), the last of the battles that brought an end to a period of intense civil war. This title traces their development from the earliest timber stockades to the immense structures that dominated the great centres of Osaka and Edo. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #6-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 6-1ST

    Volume 6 - 1st printing. "American Civil War Fortifications Part 1!" Written by Stephen Turnbull. Art by Peter Dennis. The landscape of 16th- and 17th-century Japan was dominated by the graceful and imposing castles constructed by the powerful ‘daimyo' of the period. In this the most turbulent era in Japanese history, these militarily sophisticated structures provided strongholds for the consolidation and control of territory, and inevitably they became the focus for many of the great sieges of Japanese history: Nagashino (1575), Kitanosho (1583), Odawara (1590), Fushimi (1600), Osaka (1615) and Hara (1638), the last of the battles that brought an end to a period of intense civil war. This title traces their development from the earliest timber stockades to the immense structures that dominated the great centres of Osaka and Edo. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #7-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 7-1ST

    Volume 7 - 1st printing. "Lines of Torres Vedra 1809-11!" Written by Ian Fletcher. Art by Bill Younghusband. Following the battle of Bussaco on 27 September 1810 Wellington's heavily outnumbered troops began to withdraw towards Lisbon. By the evening of 9 October the British and Portuguese began to withdraw behind a line of defensive works that had been built to the north of Lisbon. These were not the rudimentary field works that the French anticipated, but an enormous network of forts, batteries and redoubts whose construction had been started the previous November - the Lines of Torres Vedras. This 30-mile-wide line utilised the area's natural defences, damming rivers, scarping hillsides, blocking roads and establishing forts upon almost all of the hills. This title describes its design, creation and effectiveness in the face of French attacks. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #8-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 8-1ST

    Volume 8 - 1st printing. "Defenses of Pearl Harbor and Oahu 1907–50!" Written by Terrance McGovern and Glen Williford. Art by John Richards and Chris Taylor. At the beginning of the 20th century, the military importance of the Hawaiian Islands became clear. Oahu in particular was a key bastion in projecting America's military power in the Pacific. The island was turned into a military fortress - and yet it also became the site of one of America's greatest defensive failures, the Japanese attack of December 7, 1941. By the end of World War II, the harbor itself was the most heavily defended in the world, and the island had earned the sobriquet Fortress Oahu. This title documents the development of the coastal, air and land defense systems that served to protect Pearl Harbor and Honolulu from 1907 to 1950, and seeks to understand why these failed at a critical point. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #9-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 9-1ST

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    Volume 9 - 1st printing. "English Civil War Fortifications 1642–51!" Written by Peter Harrington. Art by Donato Spedaliere. The techniques of European warfare were transformed during the 15th and 16th centuries by the use of gunpowder and by substantial progress in the effectiveness and destructive power of artillery. The series of conflicts in the 1640s, known collectively as the English Civil War, was the first in the British Isles that reflected this new reality. Sieges that aimed at isolating and reducing fortified places became the dominant instrument for prosecuting the war and protective fortifications were vital, for both the besieged as well as the besieger. This title describes how both the Parliamentarians and the Royalists made use of new fortification techniques throughout the course of this conflict. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #10-1ST
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    Volume 10 - 1st printing. "The Maginot Line 1928-45!" Written by William Allcorn. Art by Jeff Vanelle and Vincent Boulanger. The Maginot Line, the massive series of fortifications built by France in the 1930s to defend its borders with Germany and Italy, is perhaps the most maligned collection of fortifications ever built. Despite being a technological marvel, and the most sophisticated and complex set of fortifications built up to that time, it failed to save France from crushing defeat in 1940. Yet there are those who argue that it accomplished exactly what it was designed to do. This book provides a concise and informative treatment of the Maginot Line, from North-East France to the Mediterranean. Packed with plans, contemporary and modern images, plus digital artwork, it presents a detailed visual exploration of this famous fortification system. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #11-1ST
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    Volume 11 - 1st printing. "Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights Part 1!" Written by Stephen Turnbull. Art by Peter Dennis. Throughout their stormy history the Teutonic Knights of Germany have always been the most controversial brotherhood ever to call themselves 'Knights of Christ'.They were the most warlike of the religious orders, and this is reflected in the architecture they left behind. In contrast to the Templars who are remembered for their churches, the Teutonic memorials are the magnificent brick-built castles they built as a result of their conquest of Prussia between 1230 and 1380. Many of these dramatic fortresses still exist today in what is now Poland and provide a unique example of an architectural style that closely reflects the nature of the Order. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #12-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 12-1ST

    Volume 12 - 1st printing. "Fortresses of the Peninsular War 1808–14!" Written by Ian Fletcher. Art by Chris Taylor. In the course of the Peninsular War, Wellington's army fought several hard battles and smaller actions, but it was the bloody sieges that troubled him more than anything else. Indeed, the performance of his army during the sieges was probably the most disappointing aspect of what was otherwise an extremely successful campaign. Taking 1808 as its starting point, this title deals with the fortress sieges that involved Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese army, and concentrates on four key sites in particular (Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Burgos and San Sebastián). All of these played a vital role in the war due to their strategically important positions. It documents both the sieges and the storming of the fortresses, as well as the general role of the fortresses in Spain and the impact they had on the thinking of the commanders and strategies of the armies involved. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #13-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 13-1ST

    Volume 13 - 1st printing. "Norman Stone Castles Part 1!" Written by Christopher Gravett. Art by Adam Hook. Descended from the Viking raiders who settled in Northern France under the leadership of Rollo in around 911, the Normans were amongst the most feared warriors of their time. Their territorial ambitions culminated in Duke William 1's conquest of England in 1066, but although victory at Hastings left the English crown in William's hands, Norman sovereignty remained far from established on the island. In order to consolidate his position, the new king built a series of fortifications across the country - this book covers all these developments from the early days of William I through to the fortifications of Henry II, Richard I and John. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #14-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 14-1ST

    Volume 14 - 1st printing. "Fortifications in Wessex, 800-1066!" Written by Ryan Lavelle. Art by Donato Spedaliere. The defence of the 9th-century kingdom of Wessex under King Alfred against the 'Great Viking Army' is one of the major military achievements of Early Medieval history. While the guerrilla warfare in the Somerset marshes and the battle of Edington are characteristic of Alfred's military abilities, his definitive physical achievement was a series of some 30 well-structured fortifications (known as burhs) across the kingdom. Many of these fortifications survive to this day and some were even reinforced to stand up to German tanks in the expected invasion of 1940. This title describes their beginnings in the turbulent early years of Alfred's reign as well as their subsequent development and use. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #15-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 15-1ST

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    Volume 15 - 1st printing. "Germany's West Wall!" Written by Neil Short. Art by Chris Taylor. The West Wall (or the Siegfried Line as the Allies called it) played a crucial role in the bitter fighting of 1944 and 1945 in North-West Europe. Constructed in the period immediately after the remilitarisation of the Rhineland in 1936, the Wall stretched for 300 miles from Cleve in the north to the Swiss Border and consisted of some 14,000 pillboxes. The Wall initially blunted the US attack, and Hitler used it as a foundation from which to launch the Ardennes Offensive. This title takes a detailed look at the development and form of this key fortification, examining the principles of its defence in visual depth, and discussing its fate in the wake of the Allied onslaught. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #16-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 16-1ST

    Volume 16 - 1st printing. "The Fortifications of Malta 1530-1945!" Written by Charles Stephenson. Art by Steve Noon. The Island of Malta occupies a pivotal position in the Mediterranean, forming an outpost between North Africa and the soft underbelly of Europe. Such has been its strategic importance throughout the years that it has become one of the most fortified places in the world. Following the successful defence of the island during the Great Siege of 1565, the Knights Hospitaller built new walls and fortifications. These defences failed when Napoleon occupied Malta in 1798, and the island was retaken by the British in 1800. From this point onwards, Malta's defences were modernised throughout the 19th century and the island's final test came during World War II. This book examines all these different styles of fortification from the 16th to the 20th century. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #17-1ST
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    Volume 17 - 1st printing. "Troy c. 1700–1250 BC!" Written by Nic Fields. Art by Donato Spedaliere. Hisarlik is a small place, a sandy stone strewn hillock cut up into gullies and hummocks. Yet its historical significance is immense, for this is the site of Troy - the legendary city whose story sprawls across cultures, time and geography. The tale of the siege of Troy is the greatest secular story ever told, and has captured the imagination of the Western World for some 3,000 years. Although there are many difficulties in using Greek myths, oral traditions and the Homeric epics to reconstruct the Trojan War, this title uses the latest archaeological evidence to reconstruct in detail the fortifications of Troy as well as making more general observations about the possible historical events behind the epics of Homer. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #18-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 18-1ST

    Volume 18 - 1st printing. "Norman Stone Castles Part 2!" Written by Christopher Gravett. Art by Adam Hook. Following the creation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Normans were soon introduced to the castle and they built them in large numbers. In the mid-11th century, other Norman adventurers began carving out dominions for themselves in Southern Italy: some crossed to Sicily in 1061 and by 1091 had conquered the whole island. As in Normandy, they were keen to assimilate new ideas, including architectural styles, resulting in some striking buildings. This title, a companion to Fortress 13: Norman Stone Castles (1) The British Isles 1066-1216, provides a detailed guide to the castles built in Normandy, Southern Italy and Sicily, covering defensive principles, daily life, the events of siege warfare, and the fate of the castles. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #19-1ST
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    Volume 19 - 1st printing. "Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights Part 2!" Written by Stephen Turnbull. Art by Peter Dennis. The original forced conversion of pagan Livonia, what is now the Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, was carried out by a military order known as the Brethren of the Sword. In 1236 this order was incorporated into the Teutonic Knights following a catastrophic military defeat. The knights had always consolidated their conquests through networks of castles and fortified places, and the Livonian Chapter of the Teutonic Order built castles of stone. This title covers the developmental and operational history of these fortresses over the length of the Middle Ages. It details how the Baltic fortifications of the Teutonic Knights evolved to reflect the changing nature of siege warfare and the increasing dominance of gunpowder in warfare. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #20-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 20-1ST

    Volume 20 - 1st printing. "British Home Defences 1940-45!" Written by Bernard Lowry. Art by Chris Taylor and Vincent Boulanger. In the summer of 1940, Britain asked itself not 'will Hitler invade?' but 'when?' SEALION, the German invasion plan, provoked the construction of pillboxes, coastal defences, heavy-gun emplacements and anti-aircraft batteries, as well as the formation of the Home Guard and covert groups. Later, new dangers replaced SEALION: radar detection systems were expanded during the Blitz years, as were intelligence-gathering systems and listening posts. From 1944, Britain was again faced with a deadly threat, Hitler's 'Vengeance weapons'. This title provides a concise assessment of Britain's defensive systems, and presents a vivid picture of war on the home front. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #21-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 21-1ST

    Volume 21 - 1st printing. "Crusader Castles in the Holy Land 1097-1192!" Written by David Nicolle. Art by Adam Hook. The Crusaders that landed in the Middle East in the late 11th century brought with them their own traditions of military architecture, but it was not long before their defensive construction began to reflect a broad array of local influences. Most early Crusader structures were relatively small, and tended to increase the existing natural and defensive features of a site. The basic forms comprised freestanding towers, castra, and hilltop and spur-castles, but urban centres, religious sites and rural dwellings were also fortified. From the 1160s, bigger, stronger and more expensive castles began to appear, in response to developments in Islamic siege weaponry. This title examines the early fortifications erected by the Crusaders in modern-day Israel, the Palestinian territories, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and south-eastern Turkey. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #22-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 22-1ST

    Volume 22 - 1st printing. "Mycenaean Citadels 1350-1200 B.C!" Written by Nic Fields. Art by Donato Spedaliere. Mycenaean society was constantly geared for battle and invasion. Their ‘cities' were heavy fortresses with unimaginably thick perimeter walls. Legendary sites such as Mycenae, Tiryns, Argos, Krisa, the Athenian Acropolis and Gla are all representative of their fortified citadels that dominated the Greek countryside for some 300 years until their sudden decline and abandonment around 1100 BC. This title describes the golden age of these fortifications; it details how these formidable structures were constructed and extended, as well as revealing the elaborate palace complexes built by the great Mycenaean warlords immortalised in the verses of Homer's Iliad. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #23-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 23-1ST

    Volume 23 - 1st printing. "German Field Fortifications 1939-45!" Written by Gordon L Rottman. Art by Ian Palmer. The German Army of World War II considered itself an offensive, mobile force. The experiences in the trenches in World War I had done much to shape its concept of field fortification, and its mobile warfare ethos was intended to prevent the previous war's stalemate. This book addresses frontline defensive field fortifications, built by infantrymen using local materials, and includes rifle platoon positions, trenches, crew-served weapon positions, bunkers, dugouts, shelters and more. It also covers anti-tank and anti-personnel obstacles, as well as field camouflage methods and construction methods. The integration of these positions into permanent systems and theatre-specific defences are also discussed. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #24-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 24-1ST

    Volume 24 - 1st printing. "Fortifications of the Western Front 1914–18!" Written by Paddy Griffith. Art by Peter Dennis. Following the early battles of 1914 along the Marne and in the Ypres salient, World War I rapidly changed from a war of movement into one of attrition, with the opposing sides entrenching themselves in a line of fortified positions from the Flanders coastline to the Swiss border. This volume details the different styles of fortification used on the Western Front throughout the course of the war, from the early ditches of 1914 to the complicated systems of 1918. It explains the development of the 'defence in depth' German system and the British reaction to it, as well as illustrating the importance of the pre-war forts, particularly around Verdun. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #25-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 25-1ST

    Volume 25 - 1st printing. "The Walls of Constantinople AD 324-1453!" Written by Stephen Turnbull. Art by Peter Dennis. The walls of Constantinople are the greatest surviving example of European medieval military architecture in the world. They withstood numerous sieges until being finally overcome by the artillery of Mehmet the Conqueror in 1453, and exist today as a time capsule of Byzantine and Medieval history. This book examines the main defensive system protecting the landward side of the city, which consisted of three parallel walls about 5 miles long. The walls defended the city against intruders, including Attila the Hun, before finally being breached by European knights during the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and, ultimately, destroyed by Turkish artillery in 1453. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #26-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 26-1ST

    Volume 26 - 1st printing. "Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004!" Written by Mir Bahmanyar. Art by Ian Palmer. Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan developed and reinforced many natural cave systems to use as supply bases and defensive positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda further strengthened these positions in the 1990s. Following the events of September 11, 2001, these cave systems have once more come to prominence and sites such as Tora Bora and Zhawar Kili have featured in news headlines around the world. This title provides an analysis of these caves and underground systems, and discusses the U.S.-led Coalition's tactical approach to dislodging the enemy from these fortified positions. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #27-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 27-1ST

    Volume 27 - 1st printing. "French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763!" Written by René Chartrand. Art by Donato Spedaliere. Following the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, European colonists brought their system of fortification to the New World in an attempt to ensure their safety and consolidate their conquests. French and British explorers came later to North America, and thus the establishment of their sizeable settlements only got under way during the 17th century. The inhabitants of New France built elaborate fortifications to protect their towns and cities. This book provides a detailed examination of the defenses of four of them: Québec, Montréal and Louisbourg in Canada, and New Orleans in Louisiana. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #28-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 28-1ST

    Volume 28 - 1st printing. "Forts of the American Frontier 1820-91!" Written by Ron Field. Art by Adam Hook. A major period of westward expansion took place in the United States during the first half of the 19th century. Fur trading, the coast-to-coast railroad, the California gold rush and the removal of Native American tribes both facilitated and encouraged America's manifest destiny to become a transcontinental nation. The task of protecting the settlers from the tribes that inhabited the Great Plains fell to the US Army, and to do this an extensive network of permanent forts was created via construction and acquisition. This title examines why the forts were built, as well as their design, defensive features and the role they played in the settlement of the American West. The daily lives of the garrison soldiers and fort inhabitants are also covered, together with the fighting witnessed at key sites. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #29-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 29-1ST

    Volume 29 - 1st printing. "Forts of the American Frontier 1820-91!" Written by Gordon L Rottman. Art by Ian Palmer. The US Army and Marine Corps in World War II considered themselves highly mobile, offensive forces. Their mobile-warfare doctrine envisioned field fortifications and obstacles as temporary in nature. As a result, their design was simple and made use of local materials, and they could be constructed comparatively quickly, whilst still providing adequate protection. By the time of the Korean War, only minor changes had been made to field fortification construction and layout, and to small-unit organization, weapons, and tactics. This title addresses field fortifications built by US infantrymen during World War II and in Korea, and covers rifle-platoon positions, trenches, crew-served weapon positions, bunkers, dugouts, shelters, observation posts and anti-tank obstacles. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #30-1ST
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    Volume 30 - 1st printing. "Fort Eben Emael!" Written by Simon Dunstan. Art by Hugh Johnson. At the outbreak of World War II, Fort Eben Emael in Belgium was the strongest fortress in the world, and it lay exactly across the German invasion route of Belgium and France. The fort's elimination was essential for the success of Hitler's invasion of the West. Deemed impregnable to conventional attack, Hitler himself suggested the means for its capture with the first glider-borne assault in military history. On 10 May 1940, ten gliders carrying just 77 paratroopers landed on top of the fort. Using top-secret hollow-charge weapons for the first time in warfare, the assault pioneers of Sturmgruppe Granit subdued Fort Eben Emael within just 30 minutes, and the fortress surrendered within 30 hours. It remains one of the greatest raids in the annals of Special Forces. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #31-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 31-1ST

    Volume 31 - 1st printing. "Rome's Northern Frontier AD 70–235!" Written by Nic Fields. Art by Donato Spedaliere. When the Romans first fought against Caledonii during the reign of Agricola (AD 77-84), Agricola established a frontier along the Gask Ridge. He also consolidated the Forth-Clyde isthmus, the location at which the Romans would later build the Antonine Wall from AD 138 to 143. The following 100 years saw a cycle of advance into and retreat from Scotland, until the Romans abandoned the Antonine Wall completely. This book examines the Flavian, Antonine and Severan conquests of Scotland and the fortifications along Rome's northern frontier, and it explores the archaeological remains and places them in historical context. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #32-1ST
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    Volume 32 - 1st printing. "Crusader Castles in the Holy Land 1192-1302!" Written by David Nicolle. Art by Adam Hook. The debacle of the Second Crusade in 1148 caused the Crusader States to realise the necessity of developing a more cautious strategy. The original expansionist spirit largely disappeared, and the Crusader States made priorities of strengthening their existing fortifications and towns and building new castles. These structures encompassed core aspects of Western European military architecture with the integration of rapidly developing Arab and Islamic traditions. Following Fortress 21: 'Crusader Castles in the Holy Land 1097–1192', this book examines the design, development and defensive principles of some of the best-known Crusader fortifications and castles, including Crac des Chevaliers, Castel Blanc, Arsuf, Margat, Atlit, Montfort and Acre. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #33-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 33-1ST

    Volume 33 - 1st printing. "Special Forces Camps in Vietnam 1961–70!" Written by Gordon L Rottman. Art by Chris Taylor. In 1961 US Special Forces units began entering remote areas of Vietnam dominated by the Viet Cong. Their task was to organize local defense and strike forces aimed at stopping the enemy from gaining further control of such areas. The Green Berets set up fortified camps from which indigenous troops defended local villages and attacked and harassed the enemy. How these camps were constructed, developed, and defended is documented here for the first time. This book also covers the weapons, barriers, and obstacles used in these camps, providing specific examples of camp design, and details how they withstood the test of battle against a determined and resourceful enemy. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #34-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 34-1ST

    Volume 34 - 1st printing. "Japanese Fortified Temples and Monasteries AD 710-1602" Written by Stephen Turnbull. Art by Peter Dennis. From the 10th century onwards the great Japanese monastic foundations of Nara and Mount Hiei maintained large armies of warlike monks. The tempestuous political rivalries that developed between the different orders of monks and religiously inspired laymen ensured that their temples and monasteries had to be securely sited and robustly defended. This books recreates these enormous fortified monasteries and temples, tracing their development from the 10th century through to the Sengoku Jidai period and the rise of the power of the shogunate under Tokugawa Ieyasu. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #35-1ST
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    Volume 35 - 1st printing. "British Fortifications in Zululand 1879" Written by Ian Knight. Art by Adam Hook. On 11 January 1879 the British Empire went to war with the independent kingdom of Zululand. The British anticipated a swift and decisive victory, placing great faith in modern firepower; no plans were made for suppressing the Zulu over a protracted period, or for providing defensive positions from which to occupy Zulu territory. However, the losses suffered at Isandlwana and Rorke's Drift quickly altered the British approach; throughout the rest of the war, the British fortified almost every position they occupied in Zululand, from permanent column depots to temporary halts. This title explores British defensive techniques employed during the war, and how these related to contemporary engineering theory. Among the sites covered are Eshowe Mission Station, forts Pearson and Tenedos, and Rorke's Drift. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #36-1ST
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    Volume 36 - 1st printing. "US Strategic and Defensive Missile Systems 1950–2004!" Written by Mark Berhow. Art by Chris Taylor. For 40 years following the end of World War II, the Western democratic governments and the Eastern Bloc Communist powers were locked in the ideological, political, and economic struggle of the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union developed missile systems capable of delivering conventional and nuclear explosives against enemy massed bomber formations in the air, and of delivering retaliatory nuclear payloads against ground targets located on distant continents. The missile systems played both a defensive role, and a potential offensive role, which was parlayed to the public as deterrence against attack by the rival bloc. This title provides a detailed overview of the fixed-launch-site strategic missile systems of the United States. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #37-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 37-1ST

    Volume 37 - 1st printing. "D-Day Fortifications in Normandy!" Written by Stephen J. Zalonga. Art by Hugh Johnson. German defenses along the Normandy beaches were part of the larger Atlantic Wall fortifications designed to defend Fortress Europe. When Field Marshal Erwin Rommel took command of the invasion front in late 1943, he began a program to enhance fortifications along the Normandy coast as he believed that any Allied assault had to be stopped on the invasion beaches themselves. His most important contribution to the defenses was an extensive program of improvised beach obstructions to complicate any landing attempt. This book analyses these fortifications and describes how the Allied forces overcame them on the morning of June 6, 1944. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #38-1ST
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    Volume 38 - 1st printing. "American Civil War Fortifications Part 2!" Written by Ron Field. Art by Peter Dennis. GThe American Civil War saw a massive development in the use of field fortifications, the result of the practical application of antebellum West-Point teaching, and the deadly impact of rifled infantry weapons and artillery. Both the Federal and Confederate armies began to develop far more sophisticated systems of field fortification, and the larger field works and fortifications surrounding Washington, DC and Richmond, VA were redesigned and rebuilt several times. This volume explores the role of land and field fortifications in the eastern and overland campaigns of the Civil War between 1861 and 1865. Particular attention is devoted to the nine-month siege of Petersburg, where daily life within the redoubts, lunettes, redans, bomb-proofs, trenches and rifle pits is vividly described. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #39-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 39-1ST

    Volume 39 - 1st printing. "Russian Fortresses 1480–1682!" Written by Konstantin Nossov. Art by Peter Dennis. In 1462 the throne of the Principality of Moscow passed to Ivan III (1462–1505), who succeeded in throwing off the Tatar yoke. For the next 200 years this new state struggled to maintain her borders against a series of attacks from the Lithuanians, Swedes and Poles to the west, as well as the Tatars to the south. They achieved this through the development of a network of fortified sites and a series of linear defensive systems. This book examine how these fortifications were developed to respond to ever changing situations under the command of such charismatic rulers as Ivan the Terrible, right through to the military reforms of Peter the Great. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #40-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 40-1ST

    Volume 40 - 1st printing. "Ancient Greek Fortifications 500–300 BC!" Written by Nic Fields. Art by Brian Delf. The development of the city-state in the Classical period of Greek history ensured a shift in the nature of fortifications in the region. No longer were fortresses designed to defend a ruler and his entourage, rather the whole of the citizen body had to be protected against any outside threats. The enceintes of these Greek city-states did not have to be very high or strong as city-state conflict was still decided by spear and shield, though some thought was still given to the science of fortification. This book details the construction and ongoing development of the defences that protected some of the most illustrious sites in Greece during the most famous period of her history. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #41-1ST
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    Volume 41 - 1st printing. "The Channel Islands 1941–45!" Written by Charles Stephenson. Art by Chris Taylor. Following the fall of France and the surrender of Paris on 14 June 1940, the British Government announced that the Channel Islands had no strategic importance and would not be defended. The Germans occupied the islands from the end of June onwards and remained in control until the end of the war. On 10 October 1941 Hitler announced his intention to 'convert them into an impregnable fortress', and the islands formed the most heavily fortified and defended section of the entire Atlantic Wall. This book describes the design, construction and manning of these defensive positions, as well as considering more widely the occupation of the Channel Islands by the Germans. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #42-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 42-1ST

    Volume 42 - 1st printing. "The Vauban Fortifications of France!" Written by Paddy Griffith. Art by Peter Dennis. Vauban was the foremost military engineer of France, not only during his lifetime, but also throughout the 18th century when his legacy and methods remained in place almost unchanged. Indeed, his expertise and experience in the construction, defence, and attack of fortresses is unrivalled by any of his contemporaries, of any nationality. In all three of those fields he was a significant innovator and prolific exponent, having planned approximately 160 major defensive projects and directed over 50 sieges. This book provides not only a modern listing of his varied interventions and their fates, but also a wide-ranging discussion of just how and why they pushed forward the international boundaries of the arts of fortification.Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #43-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 43-1ST

    Volume 43 - 1st printing. "Roman Legionary Fortresses 27 BC–AD 378!" Written by Duncan B Campbell. Art by Brian Delf. From the reign of Augustus (27 BC–AD 14) onwards the Roman Army became a standing force with permanent fortresses distributed throughout the empire. These fortresses developed from the temporary fortifications of the legions on campaign into temporary wooden structures, before finally becoming more elaborate stone fortifications designed to stand the test of time. This book describes the development, design and construction of these fortresses throughout the length and breadth of the Empire. It also deals extensively with the experience of life within a typical fortress and covers the operational history of these fortifications throughout the whole of the imperial period. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #44-1ST
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    Volume 44 - 1st printing. "American Coastal Defenses 1885–1950!" Written by Terrance McGovern and Bolling Smith. Art by Peter Bull. In the late-19th century, with the advances in technology and the increase in America's economic stature, a new round of fortification building began in the United States and its overseas territories. Locations such as Portland, Boston, New York, Baltimore, Charlestown, Savannah, Key West, Los Angeles and San Francisco were all extensively fortified. This book provides a concise introduction to the design, development and purpose of American coastal defenses in the modern era (1885–1950), a period defined by the use of concrete, steel, and powerful breech-loading rifles. It covers the emplacements, weaponry, equipment, and people that defended their country in times of great change and uncertainty. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #45-1ST
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    Volume 45 - 1st printing. "German Defences in Italy in World War II!" Written by Neil Short. Art by Chris Taylor. In 1943, Hitler ordered his forces to occupy the Italian mainland to protect the Third Reich's 'soft underbelly'. After the successful Allied landings in Salerno, the Germans fought a series of hard, rearguard actions as the Allies slowly pushed north up the peninsula towards the Alps. These actions were based around the construction of a series of defensive lines, including: the Gustav Line, anchored on Monte Cassino, the Hitler Line, the Caesar Line, and the Gothic Line. This book explores the development and form of these defensive systems, examining the key fortifications in visual depth and discussing their fate in the wake of the Allied onslaught. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #46-1ST
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    Volume 46 - 1st printing. "Castles and Tower Houses of the Scottish Clans 1450–1650!" Written by Stuart Reid. Art by Graham Turner. With the exception of the key royal sites, such as Stirling and Edinburgh, few Scottish castles were located at strategic points, or were intended to house garrisons required to defend or subjugate towns. Instead they were primarily fortified dwelling houses, erected in an environment of weak Royal authority and endemic feuding between rival clans and groups, in both Highland and Lowland areas. Although some enceinte castles were developed during the 16th and 17th centuries, most defensive construction focused on the tower house, a distinctive vernacular style of Scottish fortification. This book examines the design, development, and purpose of these quintessentially Scottish buildings, and also covers larger sites such as Urquhart and Blackness. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #47-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 47-1ST

    Volume 47 - 1st printing. "Fortifications of the Incas!" Written by H. W. Kaufmann, and J.E. Kaufmann. Art by Adam Hook. The greatest period of Inca expansion occured during the reigns of Pachacuti (1438–71), Tupa Inca (1471–93), and Huayna Capac (1493–1527). From the mountain stronghold of Cuzco, they subjugated the surrounding kingdoms and territories, absorbing their civilizations and their peoples. By 1525, they dominated much of the west of the continent, relying on fortified strongholds, an extensive system of roads and bridges, and obligatory military service to control local populations. This title takes a detailed look at the development of Incan fortification techniques, and examines how they came to be overrun by the Spanish conquistadors. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #48-1ST
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    Volume 48 - 1st printing. "Viet Cong and NVA Tunnels and Fortifications of the Vietnam War!" Written by Gordon L Rottman. Art by Chris Taylor, Lee Ray, and Alex Mallinson. During the Vietnam War, the Viet Cong (VC) main forces and North Vietnamese Army (NVA) were forced to hide weapons and supplies underground and to dig protective shelters to counter massive US firepower. Their field works defended villages, hidden base camps, and fortified complexes, and took the form of trench systems, individual fighting positions, crew-served weapon positions, bunkers, caches, and extensive tunnel complexes. Camouflage and deceptive measures, and the employment of obstacles and booby traps, went hand-in-hand with such works. This title takes a detailed look at the VC/NVA tunnel systems, field fortifications, base camps. and camouflage and concealment measures employed during the Vietnam conflict. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #49-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 49-1ST

    Volume 49 - 1st printing. "The Spanish Main 1492-1800!" Written by Rene Chartrand. Art by Donato Spedaliere. Following Columbus's arrival in the Bahamas in 1492, the lands of the 'new world' were divided between Spain and Portugal. The riches gained by the Spaniards soon aroused the interest of the French and the English, eager to exploit the area they called the 'Spanish Main' (an area broadly encompassing the West Indies and the Central American and Mexican coast). In response, the Spanish fortified their new territories. The earliest examples were very much based on medieval styles of fortification, but over the following three centuries the fortifications were updated, modernized and improved according the latest European principles. This book describes the evolution of the fortifications and their fate. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.

  • Issue #50-1ST
    Osprey Fortress Series SC (2003) 50-1ST

    Volume 50 - 1st printing. "The Forts of Celtic Britain!" Written by Angus Konstam. Art by Peter Bull. Half a millennium before the Romans first arrived in Britain, an even more ferocious people, the Celts, arrived in what is now south-eastern England. The Celts remained in Britain long after the Romans departed, and although driven into the remoter corners of the island by English invaders the people who remained clung onto their Celtic heritage, and defended their remaining lands against all-comers. In order to defend their lands from other tribes or outside invaders these people established powerful fortified sites that served as places of refuge in wartime and as administrative and trading centres in times of peace. This book examines these fascinating forts, which varied considerably from the mysterious brochs and duns found in northern Britain, to the hill-top forts ranging in size, to the promontory forts that formed powerful coastal strongholds all around the island's shores. Softcover, 64 pages, PC/PB&W Cover price $18.95.